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Apa alasan di balik itu kadang-kadang ketika saya melihat hal baru saya merasa bahwa saya telah melihat mereka?

Apa alasan di balik itu kadang-kadang ketika saya melihat hal baru saya merasa bahwa saya telah melihat mereka?


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Saya telah googled dan saya menemukan bahwa itu, karena memori yang baik, tetapi bagaimana bisa karena memori yang baik karena tidak terjadi sebelumnya. Itu terjadi pada saya berkali-kali, bahwa saya merasa bahwa pemandangan yang terjadi sekarang, telah terjadi pada saya di masa lalu saya. Tapi itu adalah adegan baru dalam hidup saya, jadi mengapa saya merasa seperti ini? Bagaimana mungkin adegan yang sama terjadi dua kali?. Apa alasan di balik itu, bahwa kita merasakan sesuatu dua kali dalam hidup kita.


Yang Anda bicarakan adalah déjà vu, perasaan akrab meskipun situasinya tidak akrab sama sekali. Faktanya, ini adalah fenomena yang sangat umum. Persentase yang tinggi dari orang-orang yang melaporkan mengalami déjà vus. Meskipun demikian, sulit untuk menyebutkan angkanya, karena pengalaman dan definisi déjà vu mungkin berbeda. Saya telah menemukan angka antara 60 dan 90% dari populasi.

Klaim bahwa ini adalah tanda ingatan yang baik terkait dengan pandangan, bahwa déjà vu bukanlah ingatan yang salah, karena Anda sebenarnya menyadari bahwa situasinya tidak asing bagi Anda (juga disebutkan di sini).

Tapi bagaimana déjà vus bisa terjadi? Ada beberapa teori…

Tampaknya jelas bahwa déjà vus berhubungan dengan aktivitas di lobus temporal (di sisi otak). Di situlah memori diproses, terutama memori episodik (hal-hal yang terjadi - berbeda dengan mempelajari suatu keterampilan). Orang dengan epilepsi sering melaporkan déjà vus tepat sebelum kejang yang dimulai di lobus temporal.

Satu teori, yang dikemukakan dalam makalah ini, mengatakan bahwa ingatan dan perasaan keakraban diproses di area yang berbeda dan ada aktivasi palsu dari area keakraban selama déjà vu. Otak tidak selalu bekerja dengan baik, mis. sensasi palsu bisa terjadi, seperti halusinasi. Jadi, aktivasi palsu dari pusat keakraban itu bisa memberi kita rasa keakraban dalam situasi yang tidak dikenal.

Mirip dengan ini adalah gagasan, bahwa mungkin ada ketidaksesuaian antara persepsi dan pembentukan memori. Ketika sesuatu yang kita alami saat ini "bocor" ke dalam ingatan kita karena aktivasi yang salah, kita berpikir bahwa ini telah terjadi di masa lalu. Ada masalah dengan penjelasan ini: meskipun memiliki perasaan keakraban yang kuat selama déjà vu, orang gagal memberikan konteks kapan peristiwa sebelumnya ini terjadi atau peristiwa lain mana yang mendahuluinya. Jadi, sepertinya tidak dianggap sebagai kenangan.

Penjelasan lain bisa jadi merupakan kombinasi yang salah dari pengalaman itu dengan sesuatu yang tidak terkait erat dengannya (seperti merencanakan perjalanan, menonton film dengan adegan serupa, dll.). Otak kita selalu mencoba menghubungkan pengalaman. Ini mungkin salah mengidentifikasi sesuatu yang Anda lihat dalam gambar atau baca di buku sebagai pengalaman nyata.

Seperti yang Anda lihat, kami masih berjuang untuk menjelaskan fenomena tersebut. Hal ini disebabkan oleh beberapa kesalahan dalam cara otak kita memahami suatu situasi, menulis atau mengambil memori atau memproses keakraban. Error ini mungkin salah aktivasi atau salah timing atau sejenisnya.


Alasan Sebenarnya Beberapa dari Kita Terlambat Secara Kronis

Untuk persentase yang baik dari orang Amerika, tiga kata kecil biasanya menyertai pintu masuk mereka ke pertemuan bisnis, kelas olahraga, makan malam dengan teman, atau kencan:

Apakah ini terdengar seperti Anda? Banyak pekerjaan penting telah melihat mengapa beberapa dari kita sangat terlambat. Yang benar adalah bahwa ada banyak alasan mengapa orang tidak bisa tiba di suatu tempat tepat waktu. Tetapi tampaknya ada satu benang merah yang mengalir melalui perilaku individu yang terlambat kronis yang mungkin menjadi alasan paling universal untuk keterlambatan mereka yang terus-menerus — namun secara konsisten diabaikan:

Orang-orang terlambat karena mereka tidak ingin datang lebih awal.

Bagi mereka yang tertantang tepat waktu, motivasi dasar ini mendorong perilaku baik secara sadar maupun tidak sadar.

Sebagian besar dari kita mengenal orang yang selalu tepat waktu karena mereka membenci terlambat. Saya termasuk dalam kategori ini sebenarnya, saya paranoid karena terlambat. Saya pergi ke tempat-tempat yang memalukan lebih awal, yang terkadang mengharuskan saya untuk memarkir mobil saya di tikungan dan menunggu dengan diam-diam agar orang lain tidak memperhatikannya. nyata waktu saya tiba. (Kadang-kadang saya berpikir bahwa jika saya seorang ninja, saya masih akan pergi ke tempat-tempat yang sangat awal, namun akan terhibur oleh kenyataan bahwa karena saya seorang ninja tidak ada yang tahu apakah saya ada di sana.)

Karena orang seperti saya tidak suka terlambat, kami selalu tepat waktu. Tapi sama seperti kita benci terlambat, kelompok lain juga benci terlambat dini. Burung anti awal ini benar-benar mau tepat waktu—mereka lebih suka menjadi Baik tepat waktu.

Ingin menghindari menjadi awal, maka, adalah motivasi kuat mengapa banyak orang yang terlambat kronis.

Ketika Anda bertanya kepada seseorang mengapa mereka selalu terlambat, mereka akan sering memberi tahu Anda bahwa alasan umum atau asumsi tidak selalu menjelaskan kebiasaan mereka. Bahkan ketika mereka mencoba untuk mengatur, mempertimbangkan waktu orang lain, atau mengatur alarm, mereka masih cenderung terlambat. Dan mereka biasanya terlambat dengan jumlah waktu yang sama—lima, 10, atau 15 menit—cukup terlambat sehingga tidak merugikan acara mereka, tetapi tetap mengganggu orang-orang di sekitar mereka. Meski sangat ingin menghentikan kebiasaan itu, motivasinya saling bertentangan untuk tidak terlambat atau awal menimbulkan masalah nyata.

Sulit untuk mendamaikan dua cita-cita yang bersaing ini.

Jadi mengapa apakah kelompok kedua ini tidak suka datang lebih awal?

Ada berbagai alasan. Yang paling umum meliputi:

  • Ini tidak efisien. Menjadi lebih awal membutuhkan harus duduk-duduk tanpa melakukan apa-apa. Waktu tunggunya cukup singkat sehingga Anda tidak bisa masuk ke proyek lain segera setelah Anda melakukannya, waktunya sudah habis.
  • Mereka membencikegelisahan menjadi lebih awal. Mereka merasa canggung dan tidak nyaman menunggu. Mereka bahkan mungkin merasa seolah-olah orang lain sedang menonton dan menilai mereka, apakah ini benar atau tidak. Datang beberapa menit lebih awal membuat Anda merasa bangga dan percaya diri, tetapi tiba juga dini dapat membuat Anda merasa bodoh. Anda takut orang lain mungkin berpikir bahwa Anda tidak memiliki kehidupan selain dari acara ini, dan Anda tidak ingin orang berpikir bahwa waktu Anda tidak berharga. Ambil contoh kencan: Jika Anda sampai di sana sedikit lebih awal, itu tampak hebat. Tetapi jika Anda datang terlalu dini, tiba-tiba Anda khawatir bahwa Anda terlihat putus asa.
  • Ada biaya peluang yang terkait dengan mencapai suatu tempat lebih awal. Sama seperti waktu orang lain yang berharga dan Anda ingin menghargainya tepat waktu, demikian juga milikmu waktu yang berharga dan Anda lebih suka menggunakannya secara produktif daripada menunggu dengan tidak efisien.
  • Terkadang Anda tidak ingin datang lebih awal untuk bersikap sopan. Anda mungkin tidak ingin mengganggu seseorang dengan tiba di sana terlalu cepat—misalnya, pesta makan malam teman—jadi Anda lebih suka tiba di sana sedikit terlambat.

Sementara banyak orang melihat menjadi lebih awal sebagai suatu kebajikan, banyak orang lain tidak. Earlyliness tidak dihargai bagi mereka itu buang-buang waktu.

Sebuah artikel di USA Today membahas biaya keterlambatan CEO. Satu contoh hipotetis: Jika Sanford Weill, pada saat itu CEO Citigroup, datang terlambat 15 menit untuk rapat dengan empat letnannya yang dibayar paling tinggi, perusahaan harus membayar $4.250, harga waktu empat karyawan. (Itu pada tahun 2002, bayangkan berapa biaya keterlambatan yang sama hari ini.) Namun, argumen yang sama dapat diterapkan pada biaya lebih awal. Jika keempat karyawan bergaji tinggi itu tiba 15 menit sebelum Weill sampai ke pertemuan, itu masih akan merugikan perusahaan $ 4.250 dalam waktu yang terbuang.

Di dalam keduanya skenario, waktu adalah uang.

Hal ini, tentu saja, tidak mungkin untuk datang tepat waktu setiap waktu. Karena kita tidak dapat mengendalikan keadaan eksternal seperti lalu lintas dan keadaan darurat keluarga, satu-satunya cara untuk bertindak cepat adalah dengan mencapai tempat beberapa menit sebelumnya. Itu meninggalkan kita dengan masalah motivasi: Bagaimana bisa seorang anti-early bird hanya menggigit peluru dan mengambil risiko lebih awal untuk tepat waktu? (Seringkali, ketika seseorang tiba di suatu tempat lebih awal, dia memutuskan, "Lain kali saya akan memberi diri saya lebih sedikit waktu untuk sampai ke sini.")

Maka, solusi untuk benar-benar memperbaiki kebiasaan itu bukanlah memikirkan cara untuk menjadi tepat waktu tetapi lebih untuk memikirkan bagaimana membuat menjadi lebih awal lebih berharga. Artikel USA Today yang sama menyebutkan bahwa CEO Dell Computer Michael Dell menghadiri rapat sedikit lebih awal, dan mencoba memanfaatkan waktu itu dengan baik. Dia mengatakan dalam artikel tersebut, "Saya mencoba untuk menghadiri rapat sedikit lebih awal sehingga saya dapat melihat bagaimana suasana tim dan memiliki kesempatan untuk berinteraksi secara informal sebelum kita mulai serius."

Membingkai ulang waktu awal itu sebagai sesuatu berharga membuat Anda merasa waktu Anda digunakan secara konstruktif, baik untuk kepentingan Anda sendiri atau orang lain.

Jika Anda mencoba memotivasi orang lain untuk berhenti terlambat kronis, ingatlah bahwa sementara Benjamin Franklin mendukung kebajikan tidur lebih awal dan bangun pagi, selalu ada orang lain yang setuju dengan Franklin D. Roosevelt, yang mengatakan: "Saya pikir kita terlalu banyak mempertimbangkan keberuntungan burung awal dan tidak cukup nasib buruk cacing awal."


Kehadiran mistik

Tidak demikian halnya dengan FoP. “[Ini] lebih mistis,” kata ahli saraf Olaf Blanke dari Institut Teknologi Federal Swiss di Lausanne. “Anda yakin bahwa ada sesuatu, tetapi Anda tidak melihat apa-apa, Anda tidak mendengar apa-apa.”

Untuk mengidentifikasi mekanisme saraf potensial di balik FoP, tim Blanke pertama-tama mempelajari 12 orang dengan epilepsi dan masalah sensorik-motorik lainnya, yang semuanya telah melaporkan merasakan kehadiran di dekatnya. Analisis mereka menunjukkan kerusakan di tiga wilayah otak: persimpangan temporoparietal (TPJ), insula dan korteks frontal-parietal.

Dalam penelitian sebelumnya, tim Blanke telah menghubungkan TPJ dengan pengalaman keluar dari tubuh dan insula dengan halusinasi doppelgänger. Biasanya, daerah otak ini mengintegrasikan sinyal sensorik dari luar dan dalam tubuh, untuk menciptakan rasa diri yang diwujudkan. Dalam pengalaman di luar tubuh dan kondisi lain seperti itu, integrasi sinyal multisensori ini terganggu, yang mengarah ke halusinasi.

Studi baru menunjukkan bahwa FoP melibatkan gangguan tidak hanya dalam integrasi sensasi eksternal dan internal di TPJ dan insula, tetapi juga sinyal yang terkait dengan gerakan (yang diproses di korteks frontal-parietal).

Berbekal pengetahuan ini, tim Blanke beralih ke robot untuk melihat apakah mereka dapat menggunakannya untuk mengganggu proses otak normal dan menimbulkan perasaan kehadiran.


2. Trauma Masa Lalu

Terkadang sulit untuk meninggalkan hal-hal di masa lalu, dan kenangan akan trauma atau rasa sakit masa lalu dapat merayap kembali ketika Anda tidak mengharapkannya.

Bagian-bagian tertentu dari rutinitas harian Anda dapat memicu respons emosional. Terkadang, sulit untuk mengetahui secara pasti apa yang menyebabkan kehancuran gaya domino ini, itulah mengapa sangat penting untuk membicarakan perasaan Anda.

Dengan berbagi bagaimana perasaan Anda dan menjalankan berbagai skenario dan kenangan, Anda sering kali secara alami memahami dari mana emosi Anda berasal.


3 dari 18

Anda terkena konjungtivitis.

Konjungtivitis atau mata merah biasanya disebabkan oleh adenovirus, virus sial yang dapat menyebabkan pilek, bronkitis, dan sakit tenggorokan. Meskipun biasanya tidak serius, konjungtivitis dapat menyebar seperti api di sekolah dan tempat ramai lainnya. &ldquoPartikel virus di permukaan dapat tetap hidup selama sekitar dua minggu,&rdquo kata Kim Le, MD, dokter mata anak di Henry Ford Health System di Detroit.

Konjungtivitis biasanya hilang dalam satu hingga dua minggu tanpa pengobatan, tetapi jika Anda memiliki gejala yang parah, bicarakan dengan dokter Anda tentang obat antibiotik atau antivirus. Sementara itu, cobalah kompres dingin untuk mengurangi rasa gatal, kompres hangat untuk meredakan pembengkakan, atau obat tetes mata yang dijual bebas untuk membantu mengatasi iritasi, kata Dr. Le.

Cuci seprai Anda (terutama sarung bantal) dan tangan Anda sesering mungkin untuk mencegah penyebaran kuman.


Menemukan Pesan dalam Gejala Demensia

Ketika datang untuk memahami gejala demensia, Kallmyer mengatakan bahwa ada batasan untuk apa yang dapat dilakukan oleh pengasuh. “Terkadang, perilaku seseorang dengan demensia tidak ada artinya,” katanya. “Penyakit ini hanya menghancurkan sel-sel otak mereka, dan tindakan mereka tidak memiliki rima atau alasan.”

Tetapi di lain waktu, kata Kallmyer, gejala demensia yang tampaknya tidak rasional akan menyelubungi pesan yang dapat Anda dekode. "Kami suka memikirkan semua perilaku sebagai bentuk komunikasi dari orang dengan demensia," katanya kepada WebMD. Meluangkan waktu untuk menafsirkan dan memahami tidak hanya bisa mendapatkan orang yang Anda cintai apa yang mereka butuhkan, tetapi juga membawa Anda lebih dekat bersama. Sementara hubungan yang pernah Anda miliki dengan orang yang Anda cintai akan memudar, Anda mungkin menjalin hubungan baru dan berbeda namun tetap bermakna.

John dan Mary Ann Becklenberg tidak dapat mengetahui apa yang akan terjadi di masa depan bagi mereka, tetapi untuk saat ini mereka berfokus pada apa yang mereka miliki.

“Saya pikir kami benar-benar merasa lebih dekat sebagai akibat dari penyakit ini,” kata John Becklenberg, yang merupakan pengasuh utama istrinya. "Aku harus memperlambat beberapa dan mengambil lebih banyak waktu dengannya."

Mary Ann Becklenberg berterima kasih. “Pengasuh benar-benar tidak mendapatkan rasa hormat yang pantas mereka dapatkan,” katanya. “Mereka adalah pahlawan tanpa tanda jasa dari penyakit seperti Alzheimer.”

Dia juga memiliki beberapa saran. “Meskipun mengalami kesulitan, saya mendorong pengasuh dan orang-orang dengan [demensia] untuk mencoba menemukan humor dalam hidup mereka,” katanya. “John dan saya menertawakan banyak hal, dan itu membantu. Orang-orang benar-benar perlu tahu itu.”

Sumber

Mary Ann Becklenberg, penasihat tahap awal, Alzheimer's Association, Dyer, Ind.

John Becklenberg, Dyer, Ind.

Erin Heintz, direktur asosiasi hubungan masyarakat, Asosiasi Alzheimer.

Beth Kallmyer, MSW, direktur layanan klien untuk kantor nasional, Alzheimer's Association, Chicago.

Donna Schempp, direktur program, Family Caregiver Alliance, San Francisco.

AARP: “Tetap Terhubung dengan Mereka yang Peduli.”

Family Caregiver Alliance: “Panduan Pengasuh untuk Memahami Perilaku Demensia,” “Merawat Orang Dewasa dengan Gangguan Kognitif dan Memori.”


Tanda-tanda

Sejuta peristiwa berbeda terjadi di hari Anda, dan tidak ada yang menonjol bagi Anda. Ketika peristiwa yang tampaknya tidak berbahaya tiba-tiba menarik perhatian Anda dan membuat Anda bertanya-tanya apakah itu pertanda dari roh orang yang Anda cintai…mungkin memang demikian.

Sebelum bibi buyut suami saya meninggal, dia mengatakan kepada saya bahwa kupu-kupu adalah simbol kebebasannya dari tubuh fisik. Beberapa hari setelah dia meninggal, saya sedang menonton acara televisi di mana karakter utama baru saja melahirkan, dan bagi saya terlihat jelas bahwa dinding di kamar bayi dicat dengan kupu-kupu. Mereka menamai bayi itu Elle, yang merupakan kependekan dari Elizabeth. Nama bibi Mark yang hebat adalah Elizabeth, dan aku tahu ini adalah caranya menyapa kami.

Sebagian besar tanda tidak kentara. Anda mungkin tidak akan mendapatkan marching band datang ke rumah Anda dengan tanda yang berbunyi, "Ibu bilang hai!" Jauh lebih mungkin bahwa ketika Anda memikirkan ibu Anda, fotonya jatuh dari dinding, seekor merpati dengan bulu putih terbang, seseorang memberi Anda buket bunga favoritnya, atau Anda menemukan kartu darinya yang Anda telah melupakannya. Ini mungkin bukan tanda spesifik yang Anda minta, tetapi jika Anda tiba-tiba bertanya-tanya apakah itu pertanda dan memikirkan orang yang Anda cintai, itu pertanda.


Balerina Anak Laki-Laki

Temukan Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo (The Trocks), sebuah perusahaan laki-laki yang selama 45 tahun telah menawarkan kepada penonton hasrat mereka akan balet klasik yang dicampur dengan komedi yang meriah. Dengan setiap langkah mereka mengolok-olok bentuk seni mereka yang sangat gender.

Balerina Anak Laki-Lakiadalah potret Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo (The Trocks), sebuah perusahaan balet pria dan sensasi tari internasional. Selama lebih dari 45 tahun, perusahaan telah membagikan gaya khas dan pesan kesetaraan, inklusi, dan keadilan sosial kepada audiens di seluruh dunia. Para pria menampilkan balet klasik en pointe dan drag, menantang norma gender yang kaku dalam bentuk seni saat mereka memadukan teknik yang ketat dengan komedi dan satire. Terinspirasi oleh Kerusuhan Stonewall tahun 1969, perusahaan itu didorong oleh semangat pembangkangan dan semangat kreatif yang dilepaskan oleh gerakan hak-hak gay. Film ini mengikuti The Trocks dalam tur di Carolina, pusat perjuangan berkelanjutan untuk hak-hak LGBTQ. Balerina Anak Laki-Laki menjalin wawancara asli dan rekaman pertunjukan kontemporer dan arsip untuk menceritakan sejarah perusahaan yang luar biasa dan memuncak dengan penampilan The Trocks 2019 di konser ulang tahun ke-50 Stonewall di SummerStage Central Park di New York City. Dalam kata-kata balerina Kevin Garcia, “Setiap kali tirai dibuka, kami mewakili kemajuan kesetaraan. Kami hanya melakukannya dengan menari.”

Produksi Merrywidow Films bekerja sama dengan American Masters Pictures dan ITVS. Disutradarai dan diproduksi oleh Chana Gazit dan Martie Barylick. Michael Kantor adalah produser eksekutif dari Master Amerika.

Gambar Master Amerika
Didirikan pada tahun 2016 oleh produser eksekutif Michael Kantor, American Masters Pictures adalah jejak teatrikal WNET untuk film dokumenter yang diproduksi bersama oleh Master Amerika, seri biografi pemenang penghargaan yang merayakan seni dan budaya kita. American Masters Pictures bermitra dengan pembuat film, distributor, dan agen penjualan pada rilis non-siaran termasuk festival film, teater, online, DVD, VOD, dan OTT, dengan PBS sebagai penyiar eksklusif AS untuk semua film sebagai bagian dari Master Amerika seri. Film termasuk Miles Davis: Kelahiran yang Keren, N. Scott Momaday: Kata-kata dari Beruang, Toni Morrison: Potongan Saya, Sammy Davis, Jr.: I've Gotta Be Me, Bom: Kisah Hedy Lamarr, Itzhak, Norman Lear: Hanya Versi Lain dari Anda, Maya Angelou: Dan Aku Tetap Bangkit dan Garry Winogrand: Semua Hal Dapat Difoto. Sejak 1986, Master Amerika telah menetapkan standar untuk profil film dokumenter, memperoleh pujian kritis luas: 28 Emmy Awards — termasuk 10 untuk Outstanding Non-Fiction Series dan lima untuk Outstanding Non-Fiction Special — 14 Peabodys, satu Oscar, tiga Grammy, dua Producers Guild Awards dan banyak lagi kehormatan lainnya. Seri ini merupakan produksi dari THIRTEEN PRODUCTIONS LLC untuk WNET.

Tentang WNET
WNET adalah stasiun PBS unggulan Amerika: perusahaan induk dari THIRTEEN dan WLIW21 New York dan operator NJTV, jaringan media publik di seluruh negara bagian di New Jersey. Melalui inisiatif multi-platform ALL ARTS yang baru, saluran siarannya, tiga layanan kabel (TIGA BELAS PBSKids, Create and World) dan situs streaming online, WNET menghadirkan program seni, pendidikan, dan urusan publik berkualitas kepada lebih dari lima juta pemirsa setiap bulan. WNET memproduksi dan menyajikan berbagai seri PBS yang diakui, termasuk NATURE, GREAT PERFORMANCE, AMERICAN MASTERS, PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND, dan program wawancara malam AMANPOUR AND COMPANY. Selain itu, WNET memproduksi banyak film dokumenter, program anak-anak, dan berita lokal dan penawaran budaya, serta inisiatif multi-platform mengatasi kemiskinan dan iklim. Melalui THIRTEEN Passport dan WLIW Passport, anggota stasiun dapat melakukan streaming program THIRTEEN, WLIW, dan PBS baru dan arsip kapan saja, di mana saja.

Pendanaan produksi episode asli disediakan oleh Jody dan John Arnhold, Emily Coward dan Raphael Ginsberg, dan Jerome Robbins Foundation.

Mendukung Master Amerika disediakan oleh Corporation for Public Broadcasting, AARP, Rosalind P. Walter, Judith & Burton Resnick, Keluarga Cheryl & Philip Milstein, Vital Projects Fund, Lillian Goldman Programming Endowment, The Blanche & Irving Laurie Foundation, Seton J. Melvin, Philip & Janice Levin Foundation, Ellen & James S. Marcus, The André and Elizabeth Kertész Foundation, The Ambrose Monell Foundation, dan pemirsa televisi publik.

-Tutus, sepatu pointe, glamor.

Itu hanya selalu menarik bagi saya.

Itu hanya menarik bagi saya karena hanya ada seni dan keindahan seperti itu.

-Berada di perusahaan, kami mendorong batas definisi dari apa yang dilakukan pria.

Apa yang telah dilakukan Balet Trockadero selama bertahun-tahun mengubah gagasan tentang apa yang indah dalam jenis balet di kepalanya dan membalikkannya sehingga ada saat-saat dalam balet ini di mana Anda hanya mengatakan, 'Wow!'

-Apa yang dilakukan kaum Trock benar-benar menjungkirbalikkan semua tradisi balet dan, pada saat yang sama, merangkul semua tradisi balet.

-Semua yang kami lakukan berlapis-lapis.

Semuanya memiliki beberapa preseden dan momen sejarah.

Rasanya seperti memasukkan sejarah balet melalui blender.

Dan Anda akan keluar dengan shake ini.

-15 menit menuju puncak pertunjukan.

Ini adalah 15 menit ke 'Swan Lake.'

-Di atas kertas, ketika diiklankan, tertulis, 'Perusahaan balet komedi semua laki-laki.'

Kami adalah Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo, tetapi orang-orang dengan senang hati memanggil kami 'The Trocks', perusahaan balet drag.

-Ini adalah 10 menit ke tempat.

Ini adalah 10 menit sampai puncak pertunjukan.

-Kami adalah pertunjukan balet, dan saya pikir aspek hiburan tarik adalah jaring lebar untuk mengekspos balet kepada sekelompok orang.

Penjaga mereka dikecewakan melalui komedi.

[ Tertawa ] Jadi orang yang datang adalah penggemar balet.

Orang bisa membawa keluarganya.

-Kami adalah perusahaan balet yang serius dengan pelatihan, dengan latihan, yang berkeliling dunia hanya menari.

-Kami pergi ke mana-mana. Kami tidak hanya di New York.

Kami tidak hanya di London atau Tokyo.

Kami berada di Carolina Utara. Kami berada di Texas Barat.

-Trockadero melakukan banyak hal untuk mempopulerkan balet di negara yang belum terlalu mempercayainya.

Orang-orang mengerti, 'Jika kita bisa pergi ke balet, dan kita bisa tertawa, hei, itu tidak terlalu buruk.

Mungkin kita harus pergi melihat balet lagi.'

-Orang-orang ini memutuskan 'Kami akan menari,' mengambil sesuatu yang sangat formal dan menggunakannya untuk memberikan kegembiraan kepada orang-orang. [ Tertawa ] . dan kegembiraan untuk diri mereka sendiri dan menciptakan sesuatu yang merupakan bentuk perlawanan.

[ Tertawa ] 'Kami akan bersenang-senang, dan orang-orang akan mencintai kami, dan kami gay.'

-Misi perusahaan ketika pertama kali dimulai adalah bersenang-senang, bersenang-senang dengan balet klasik menggunakan drag sebagai bagian dari komedi.

-Trockadero berumur panjang sangat menakjubkan.

Trockadero benar-benar telah menjadi duta untuk humor fisik dan humor Amerika.

Ini sedikit di luar sana. Terkadang kasar dan aneh.

Kami tidak pernah menyiksa siapa pun.

Maksudku, kecuali orang-orang yang membenci kita.

[ Sorak-sorai dan tepuk tangan ] [ Tawa ] -Saya harus memberitahu Anda, pada awal semua ini, itu semacam lark.

Bukannya kami membentuk perusahaan balet ini dan, Anda tahu, di sinilah kami, kami didirikan.

[ Tertawa ] Kami tidak tahu apa yang akan terjadi.

Ini terjadi dengan banyak hal yang di belakang terlihat dipikirkan.

[ Tertawa ] Sukses tentu tidak dipikirkan.

Kami tidak tahu itu akan terjadi.

Hanya saja, waktunya sangat tepat.

Jadi, tahun 1970-an adalah saat yang tepat bagi kami untuk menyerang.

-Jadi, ke dalam rebusan muncul Trocks.

[ Tertawa ] Tidak mungkin membayangkan bahwa ada perusahaan seperti Trocks sebelum didirikan pada tahun 1974.

Agak sulit untuk percaya bahwa ada Trocks pada tahun 1974, tetapi itu adalah waktu yang lebih luas, dan ada kemungkinan sesuatu yang transgresif seperti Trocks.

-Pada periode kami datang, itu selama pergolakan setelah kerusuhan Stonewall dan ketika adat-istiadat sosial dan adat-istiadat budaya berubah.

Kami datang, dan kami agak mengguncang segalanya.

[ Tertawa ] -Saya keluar ketika saya pindah ke New York.

Tetapi pada masa itu, Anda tahu, di akhir tahun 60-an dan 70-an, keluar tidak seperti tahun 20-an atau 30-an atau tentu saja abad ke-19, ketika tidak ada yang namanya keluar, karena Stonewall sudah terjadi. .

-1969, 28 Juni, dini hari, polisi menggerebek Stonewall Inn.

Ada begitu banyak mitos tentang apa yang terjadi di Stonewall.

Beberapa mitos tersebut disebabkan oleh pemberitaan pers saat itu.

Judulnya adalah 'Sarang Homo Diserbu, Ratu Lebah Gila.'

Dan mereka menjelaskan dalam artikel itu dan juga artikel tentang bagaimana ada garis tendangan yang menghadang polisi.

Mereka adalah anak-anak yang tidak sesuai gender.

Mereka tidak menyebut diri mereka seperti itu.

Dan bukannya melarikan diri dari barisan polisi yang hanya melangkah ke arah mereka, mereka membentuk barisan tendangan dan meneriakkan, 'Kami adalah gadis-gadis Desa. Kami memakai rambut kami dalam ikal.

Kami memakai celana dalam kami di atas lutut nelly kami.'

Dan ada satu baris lagi sebelum polisi mendakwa mereka.

Jadi ini adalah para remaja yang bersenang-senang dengan mengorbankan polisi, dan polisi tidak tahan.

Stonewall adalah titik api dalam sebuah gerakan yang menyebar ke seluruh negeri dan kemudian ke seluruh dunia.

[ Kerumunan bernyanyi tidak jelas ] -Tanpa kerusuhan Stonewall, saya tidak berpikir bahwa perusahaan seperti Les Ballets Trockadero bisa dimulai.

Stonewall membuka pintu dan membuat semua jenis pertunjukan menjadi mungkin.

-Tahun 1970-an di New York disebut Dance Explosion.

Anda tahu, ada perusahaan balet dan perusahaan tari modern, perusahaan kontemporer.

Sungguh, setiap blok lainnya, seseorang memiliki loteng dan perusahaan.

Dan Balet Kota New York adalah kekuatan besar, dan ABT adalah kekuatan besar.

Dan semua perusahaan besar dari Eropa datang secara teratur ke New York.

Seluruh tempat itu hanya gila dansa.

Ada begitu banyak perusahaan.

[ Tertawa ] Jadi, di satu sisi, kami cocok dengan keseluruhan skema itu.

Mengapa bukan perusahaan balet drag?

Anda tahu, mengapa tidak men in tutu?

Segala sesuatu yang lain sedang terjadi. Mengapa tidak?

-Ini adalah bagian dari seluruh pasca-Stonewall.

'Kami akan tampil. Kita akan memakai apa yang ingin kita kenakan.

Kami akan melakukan apa yang ingin kami lakukan.'

-Tapi melakukan apa pun yang berhubungan dengan gay di tahun 1970-an, apakah Anda bermaksud politik atau tidak, itu adalah pernyataan politik.

Apakah Trocks mengira mereka melakukan sesuatu yang politis atau tidak, itu pasti tindakan politik, atau dianggap seperti itu.

-Pertama kali saya melihat Trocks, saya berusia 12 tahun, dan reaksi saya adalah melihat surga terbuka.

Dan saya hanya melihat orang tua saya, dan itu seperti, 'Itu tempat yang sempurna untuk saya.'

Saya pikir semuanya dimulai ketika kita merias wajah kita.

Saya mulai masuk ke dalam gelembung saya sendiri, di mana Kevin berada di samping dan saya menjadi seorang balerina.

Perusahaan ini memberi saya kesempatan untuk menjadi, akhirnya, Kevin tanpa dinding.

-Ada sesuatu yang benar-benar memberdayakan tentang tampil di drag.

Di perusahaan tradisional, Anda akhirnya menari peran laki-laki di belakang seorang gadis, hanya bermitra, dan saya merasa itu tidak cukup bagi saya.

Saya selalu meletakkan sepatu pointe di samping, bersembunyi.

Anak perempuan dilatih secara klasik untuk pergi en pointe ketika mereka berusia 11 tahun.

Saya memakai sepatu pointe pada usia sekitar 22 tahun.

Jadi tubuhku belum siap untuk itu.

Itu menyakitkan, dan tidak pernah benar-benar membaik, tetapi ada saat ketika tubuh Anda benar-benar terbiasa dan Anda tidak merasakannya lagi.

Dan itulah saat-saat terbaik.

Saya merasa bahwa ketika saya memakai sepatu pointe, seluruh kesejajaran tubuh saya berbeda.

Saya bisa bergerak lebih seperti balerina.

Anda harus memiliki kontrol, keseimbangan, penyempurnaan tertentu yang tidak Anda rasakan datar.

Jika Anda dapat melampaui kesengsaraan itu, Anda benar-benar dapat merasakan ada energi indah yang terjadi di dalam tubuh Anda.

Anda merasa seperti penari yang berbeda.

Ketika saya menari peran wanita, saya tidak berusaha menjadi seorang wanita, jika Anda ingin mengatakannya.

Saya mencoba untuk menjadi karakter yang saya gambarkan.

Saya benar-benar mencoba untuk menyalurkan semua balerina yang telah saya cari dan semua perasaan yang dapat digambarkan oleh balerina ini ketika dia menari peran itu.

Saat aku menjadi Ratu Angsa, aku tidak mencoba menjadi wanita yang memerankan Odette atau pria yang berpakaian seperti wanita yang memainkan peran itu, karena itu banyak.

Itu banyak untuk dipikirkan.

Saya hanya mencoba untuk benar-benar memikirkan karakter yang saya menari.

[ Tertawa ] Odette adalah seorang putri dan di bawah mantra Rothbart, dan dia menjadi angsa.

Anda harus menggambarkan perasaan terjebak dalam tubuh orang lain seperti ini.

[ terisak ] Atau tidak bisa menjadi diri sendiri.

[ Tertawa ] Dan itu adalah perasaan yang saya yakin semua orang dapat merasakannya dalam beberapa hal.

Dan itulah yang berhasil ketika kita benar-benar, Anda tahu, diri kita sendiri.

[ Tertawa ] Ini adalah peran yang dijunjung oleh setiap penari, dan, ya, itu adalah sosok penting dalam balet.

Siapa yang tidak suka 'Swan Lake'? Siapa yang tidak ingat Ratu Angsa?

[ Tertawa ] Ada banyak harapan bahkan di perusahaan biasa.

Semua orang datang untuk menonton Ratu Angsa.

Jadi banyak yang harus saya kerjakan, untuk disampaikan, karena menjadi Ratu Angsa itu bagus, tapi bagus juga menjadi Ratu Angsa.

[ Tepuk tangan ] -Di perusahaan seperti kami, yang merupakan perusahaan yang dibuat sendiri, tidak ada institusi di belakangnya.

Anda tahu, ketika kami memulai Trockadero, kami baru saja menyatakan diri sebagai perusahaan balet.

Kami tidak melalui 'Pergi.' Kami tidak berhenti di Park Place.

Kami baru saja berkata, 'Ini dia,' dan saya baru saja menyatakan diri sebagai balerina prima.

Saya tidak memiliki karir menari sama sekali.

Saya hanya berkata, 'Ini dia. Saya seorang balerina prima.'

Dan saya diterima seperti itu.

Jadi agak aneh bahwa kami muncul di tempat kejadian dan kami langsung diterima.

Banyak dari kelompok tari bajingan tidak selalu menyukai kami.

Mereka pikir apa yang kami lakukan itu buruk, menghina, dan salah.

Tapi sebenarnya bukan itu yang kami rencanakan.

Kami ingin merayakan balet dan berkata, 'Ini adalah hal terhebat di dunia, dan ini bisa menjadi parodi kecil.'

Semua hal di 'Giselle' -- Anda tahu, Wilis, gadis-gadis yang mati berlarian di kuburan pada malam hari, 'Swan Lake,' Pangeran jatuh cinta pada seekor burung dan membawanya pulang kepada ibunya untuk mengatakan, 'Saya 'ingin menikahinya' -- Anda tahu, semua hal ini benar-benar matang untuk parodi.

[ Tertawa ] Nah, begitu kami memiliki perusahaan balet, kami harus memiliki nama untuk semua penari, karena kami tidak bisa hanya tampil sebagai, Anda tahu, 'Tom Smith menari Odette malam ini.'

[ Tertawa ] Jadi pada masa itu, semua perusahaan balet yang serius ini, setiap orang harus memiliki nama Rusia.

Jadi kami berpikir, 'Kami adalah Trockadero.

Kami akan membuat semacam nama parodi.'

Jadi saya menjadi Olga Tchikaboumskaya.

Dan kemudian ada penari lain bernama Ida Neversayneva.

Ini hanya gila, benar-benar gila.

Ada seorang pria yang sangat gemuk -- kami memanggilnya Plushinskaya.

Semua inspirasi kami dan semua sikap balerina berasal dari balet Rusia kuno.

Jadi kami menciptakan seluruh dunia ini.

Dari saat Anda berjalan di teater dan mulai membaca program, ada seluruh dunia.

Kadang-kadang sebelum tirai dibuka, Anda dapat mendengar penonton di depan, dan kami mendengar orang-orang mulai terkikik, cekikikan, dan tertawa, dan Anda bisa tahu -- dan seseorang akan tertawa terbahak-bahak -- Anda bisa tahu mereka membaca nama-nama itu.

Dan kemudian kami akan selalu memiliki pengumuman sebelum tirai, 'Tolong -- tidak ada lampu kilat.

Itu mengingatkan para balerina tentang Revolusi.'

[ Tertawa ] Jadi kami mencoba menyalurkan balerina kuno semacam itu.

Anda tahu, itu sangat lucu, sangat berlebihan -- alis besar, mata besar, banyak kohl di sekitar mata.

Ini semua jenis akting film bisu.

Kita bisa menempatkan diri kita di barisan balet dari abad ke-18 sampai sekarang.

Kita bisa menempatkan diri kita di busur itu.

-By men coming in and dancing en pointe, a lot of questions were raised about things that the ballet world had thought for centuries.

The ballerina had always been put up on a pedestal -- that essence of beauty, the perfect body.

And we were coming along and saying 'You can do Swan Queen with a short, fat, black man, and it's still realistic and there's still a reason to it.'

The role is still the same.

It's just the visual is different.

Tony had worked with the American Negro Ballet before.

There had been other black ballerinas in the Ballets Russes and in major companies, but there had never been, as far as I know, a black Swan Queen.

So when he joined the Trocks, having a black prima ballerina was another first.

-Tony was a large black man in a completely white, female world of ballet, which is what the ideal was.

And so when he came on stage, I mean, people would gasp -- really gasp.

And for the audience, it pushed the envelope even more.

'Okay, we're gonna be all these guys in tutus, we're gonna be in drag, and on top of that, some of us are gonna be black.

-We came along and said, 'Why not?'

And they got a different perspective on both physical beauty and the physical energy that it took to do the ballets.

♪ ♪ -Another bill that was introduced last week would change the definition of marriage in South Carolina.

-We don't really feel like there is a reason for South Carolina to try to. -A group of South Carolina lawmakers are working on a bill that would rename same-sex marriage 'Parody Marriage.'

-It's called the Marriage and Constitution Restoration Act.

It would prohibit the state from respecting, endorsing, or recognizing any parody marriage.

-A newly passed bill in North Carolina that has been labeled the most extreme anti-LGBT measure in the country.

-We were just in a town called San Angelo, Texas, and one of the stagehands had to move five hours away from where he lived because he got shot for just being gay.

That just really broke my heart.

-On the main stage, the category is 'Wigs on Wigs on Wigs.'

-And may the best all-star win!

-Oh, my God, isn't everything better with wings?

-RuPaul's kind of like a gay Oprah.

-I think he put drag on the map for, you know, a whole community of people.

-I think the world still perceives drag as just a man in a dress or a man impersonating, but especially today, it's evolved to just so many different facets.

-It's kind of a way to show other people that they should be who they want to be or could be who's inside of them.

RuPaul always says, 'We're all born naked, and the rest is drag.'

We're all humans, and we all put on how we want to be perceived.

♪ -The first time my mom saw me with the company, she was okay with it at first.

You know, it's art, whatever.

And then she saw me in a picture where I went out in drag, and she asked me, she was like, 'Do you want to be a woman?'

You know, she was confused. She didn't understand.

But I never really connected to this idea of what it was like to be a man or what it meant to be a man.

I don't feel like a woman. I'm myself.

And I express myself in however it comes to me.

-Okay, so, we'll start the laundry pile.

-You know, it's a little Judy Garland-inspired, 1960s.

-Are there shoulder pads? -There shoulder pads.

'Cause I have sloping shoulders, so I'm gonna need some support.

And then, you know, you add a nice, like, black trouser with a little beaded fringe on the side. -Speaking of fringe, did I show you this vest that my grandpa passed down to me?

-Oh, my God. He gave you fringe benefits.

[ Laughs ] -Well, my dad was there for Christmas and got to go through his closet, and then he, like, sent me all these pictures, and he's like, 'Yeah, you know, you would love this.'

I'm like, 'You don't think I've been thinking about this for years, how I'm gonna get into my grandfather's closet and get all of that?'

My dad's an athlete, so his gift to me as a parent was giving me the opportunity to be able to play sports.

These are things he didn't have growing up.

And so I was really confronted with seeing all of these other boys who were a certain way and I was not like that.

♪ ♪ Growing up, not fitting in, and wondering why I didn't like to play football or basketball, and my dad was the coach of everything that I played.

♪ Track was okay because track and field was mixed, so there were girls there, so I could hang out with the girls.

♪ Being able to be in a company like this, where I can freely be black and gay and a dancer on stage and be good at it is a great thing for younger people to see.

I am fortunate enough to show that this is possible.

♪ ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ ♪ [ Applause ] -Before we continue, so that he can also breathe, have you all seen Ballets Trockadero?

Do you all know what Ballets Trockadero is about?

What is very interesting about this piece, 'The Dying Swan,' is that it shows a little bit of all the different aspects of Ballets Trockadero.

We sometimes even change steps.

But one thing that we keep is the meaning of the piece.

We are still doing 'The Dying Swan.'

So there's a little bit of drama, there is that feeling, there is the presence.

Just because we do things before that are funny doesn't mean that the substance of 'The Dying Swan' is not there.

You still feel the sadness, so that has to remain.

♪ [ Laughter ] -Our first theatre in New York was at a small loft theatre on West 14th Street in the middle of the Meatpacking District.

Funny thing is, you'd look out the window, and there'd be huge lines of limousines with people coming in in furs and long gowns.

They had been up at Lincoln Center earlier watching Ballet Theatre or New York City ballet.

And it was a shock, I think, for some of our clientele, too, but they came.

-We danced in New York, you know, exclusively in our early years, but once we got to be sort of a thing in New York, we realized we wanted to do more than just dance in a loft.

I'm not sure touring was in our heads, but a lot of agents approached us, and they said, 'We will manage you guys.

We'll put you out there, but we won't put you in our brochure and we won't promote you.'

It was maybe an anti-gay thing.

Maybe they thought -- and I think this is probably not a bad thought -- that we would damage their serious concert artists.

You know, you can't have Dame Myra so-and-so at the harpsichord and the drag ballet on the next page.

Then we took a meeting with a man named Sheldon Soffer, and Sheldon Soffer, who was a very distinguished agent, Sheldon, not only did he put us in the brochure, he said, 'I'm gonna put you on the of the brochure.'

And he did what no other manager in New York would do -- he honored us for who we were.

And I think that outraged a lot of people, but he sure did get us a lot of tour dates.

But the very first tour date we had was South Bend, Indiana.

And if you can imagine in those times, we were really frightened.

'How are we gonna take this show, which is a total downtown phenomenon, and move this to South Bend, Indiana?

What is gonna happen to us?'

We were just sure that, you know, nobody would really get this outside the hothouse world of ballet in New York.

When we left New York, we said goodbye to all of our friends.

We were sure we would never come back -- they'd kill us out there on the road.

And so we landed in South Bend, Indiana.

They had just built this beautiful performing arts center.

We thought, 'Oh, my God, we're gonna desecrate the building, and they're gonna run us out of town on a rail, and it's gonna be awful.'

But we went to the theatre, made up, and we did the show, and they loved us.

You know, this is a strict Midwestern audience.

We started touring, and people just took us right away.

Maybe we were living in our own little planet, because, you know, anybody who tours understands this -- you don't see anything of the city that you're in.

You see your hotel and you see your dressing room and you see the stage.

And, again, we were never out in our tutus, so we weren't where someone would attack us.

As far as I can remember, nobody ever threw anything at us.

-We went to strange places.

We played little towns that, yes, we were kind of afraid to go to.

Occasionally, we would end up somewhere and we would be staying at the motel by the truck stop, and we're going, 'This doesn't quite look like where we want to be.'

But once the audience came in and started having a good time, they didn't care, because it was funny dancing, and that, they could deal with.

[ Laughter ] [ Laughter ] -There's no question that people who came to the Trocks who laughed, who really thought we were a great show, also found that gay people don't all bite.

Our show was just so benign and it was so much fun.

[ Laughter ] And there was no message of bitterness or hate.

And I think, in a way, people said, 'You know, these gay people aren't so bad after all.

Grandma loved it. The kids loved it.'

And I think they did have a different impression of gay people.

♪ [ Laughter ] We just did our show, you know, and then we went home and watched television.

♪ [ Laughter ] -All my dance teachers, when I told them what I was doing, they said, 'That's a career-killer.

You will not have a dance career after this is over.

You've just destroyed your dance career.'

I was working with two dancers from the Graham Company.

They had their own company.

And I was learning this piece, and it was all Graham.

And I thought it was supposed to be tongue-in-cheek.

So in the rehearsal, you know, I'm doing all this. ♪ Da-da-da-da, da-da-da, hunh, hunh ♪ and all this absurd -- and on my knees and all this, like, falling to the floor.

And he stopped the rehearsal, and he said, 'What are you doing?'

And I said, 'I thought this was supposed to be funny.'

And there was like this, 'Oooh.'

And people, like, cleared the rehearsal studio, and he said, 'It's not funny.'

So, on my way home, I thought, 'There's something that I do when I dance that puts all this stuff together, and the only logical place is Trockadero.'

[ Laughter ] ♪ Getting hired by Trockadero fulfilled how could I dance and carry on this tradition of slapstick, insane situations, and make the audience laugh.

[ Laughter ] ♪ -For some reason, I seem to have a talent to make ballet funny.

♪ [ Laughter ] ♪ When the Trocks first started, I spent a couple of months in the Soviet Union watching ballet.

I had to join some communist organization in order to get in.

And that's all I did. I threw my card away after that.

And in a funny way, that's where the Trockadero was born.

[ Laughter ] I saw a kind of way people danced in the old Soviet Union that was so old-fashioned.

Nobody danced like that anymore.

But that kind of had a lot to do with me understanding what ballet used to look like and that it could be funny.

And so as a choreographer, I was always seeking to dive down past the steps into some cultural information that would make a ballet appear funny to a modern audience.

That's why the Trockadero always looks sort of over-the-top -- because we were dancing in a way that people stopped dancing 30 years before.

♪ So, as a choreographer, I kind of always looked at history and I looked at precedent and I looked at what people had done before, and I wanted to sort of bring back things that had died.

I mean, it's like trying to bring back high-button shoes, I suppose, and I thought living in the past was interesting and that I could make it funny.

What could I do to turn it and twist it?

And I was always looking at the mechanics of ballet and how could I use the mechanics to make it humorous.

I mean, this became the way the Trockadero performed.

And so everything we did was real information.

We didn't have to make a lot of those jokes up.

They were already there, just waiting to be shown.

[ Laughter ] And so, a lot of people would say I don't honor it and I don't value it, but actually, I really do and I really did.

And that's the only reason it became really funny -- because it was from a place of honor, from a place of love.

♪ -If it feels really sticky now, it's because I was told to Coke it, 'cause it was really slippery before.

It's like stepping on Saran Wrap stretched over a tile.

-Sometimes you're performing on cement, sometimes you're performing on wood, sometimes you're performing on a marble floor.

-You performed on grass? -Grass.

You know, the green stuff that grows?

[ Laughs ] ♪ -What we do is very rigorous.

We do class in the morning, we go into rehearsal, We do the show.

♪ -Boysie, what are you doing?

-Curtain in five minutes, and then we will be starting on time.

[ Indistinct talking ] ♪ -[ Speaking Italian ] Are you doing the first variation?

Would you like to do it for us?

The way casting works is, I mean, first of all, everybody has to be able to do the technical parts, so when I started to become director, I changed the casting so there would be multiple casts for all the leading roles.

I thought 'There's enough for everybody.'

So everyone got to do something, so you didn't have a bunch of seething people, you know, waiting for someone to leave or to die so that they could get the role.

And that actually was instrumental in changing the atmosphere of the company because everyone started rooting for each other.

♪ Ballet is a classical art, and so when you have classical art, there are rules that one must follow -- same sizes, shape of the foot, size of the head.

But this is not what we do.

We're a comedy company, so a comedy company works better with diversity.

♪ -Comedy tends to work better if it's a little fast, so we want everything to be as fast as possible.

Sometimes the newer dancers have a really hard time with that.

And my line is that, 'The music is never too fast.

Head to the left! Head to the left!

♪ Did you ever get into a fight?

-So, what you need to do is just walk towards him.

Just like that, and you don't need to do anything else.

-When you first join the company, probably you don't have any experience with comedy, but then you develop it over time.

-And you get some mentoring from the director.

He tells you, 'Think about it this way.

Has this ever happened to you?'

♪ Then I'm able to use that, and then I take it on stage, and then -- let's say, the entrance to 'Swan Lake.'

It took me a very, very long time to get the audience to laugh at my first entrance.

If you don't get that smile just cheesy enough, oh, my God, this is gonna be really hard.

[ Applause ] If they don't laugh, then I know I have to work much harder on my comedy throughout the rest of the show to get them on board.

♪ No matter who you are, you can find your own inner comedian.

♪ [ Laughter ] -Some people, you actually need to coach into a specific way.

Because they don't really understand the point of view or the sensibility.

And some people, you need to let alone because they got it.

[ Laughter ] And if you try to fine-tune it, they lose that.

-Tory informed me that he wanted me to run through the lead in 'Paquita.'

-He came in, and he knew the entire thing.

No one had to say anything to him.

That was somebody where you have to stay out of their way.

♪ -That was lovely, Philip. -That was excellent.

-When it comes to classical choreography, I am able to pick up very quickly and memorize it very quickly because of my autism.

-My autism helped the ballet because I was able to have that lock in focus, being able to let my obsession obsess.

Pas de chat, plié, and in and in.

-I didn't know that I was autistic until I was 10 years old.

-I had so much expression inside, but it couldn't come out.

My thoughts, my feeling, speaking -- almost every aspect was locked.

I was teased every day, made fun of every day, hit every day.

There were people always trying to make me feel ashamed of me being myself, me living, me being a person.

Ballet was the only place where I was able to dry off the tears.

[ Indistinct talking ] ♪ ♪ -Alright, guys, take off your shoes.

When you're ready, we're gonna go say hello to Mr. Philip, our ballet teacher.

This class, even though they have their own dance therapy classes at their school. -Aah!

-You guys can have a seat on the floor while we're waiting for class to start.

. they rarely get to do full-on ballet therapy class.

So this is when. Just relax.

. they can really get excited and they can really go for it and they can really just let loose and enjoy themselves.

I definitely see myself in those kids.

Are we ready for the next part?

I see the wonder. I see the no filter.

Now we're gonna go into third position.

Can I see your first position?

I was very lucky to get to teach at a very early age.

And I fell in love with it.

Jump, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 12.

I would be very happy to see in this class these kids, of course, with a smile on their face.

And with kids of all different ranges and levels, what I'm looking for is the children's natural sense of sync, which is meaning we're feeling each other's energy and we're moving all as one, trying to all be cohesive together.

A lot of people think autistic children cannot be cohesive as a group together, but they are able to do this, to most people's surprise.

Now hold on to the barre and go into your plié. Keep this straight the whole time.

Doing these classes with them, it really helps not only for them to understand their body coordination and their own strengths. Very good.

Plié and lift up, up, up, up.

. their own vulnerabilities, their own self-confidence.

But it's good for me because it helps me to always remember where I came from.

-He was number 1. -You were number 1?

So let's do one number 1 again.

I needed help to get through this.

Now that I don't really need that help anymore, it's up to me to do that, to give the help back.

So that's why I do it. That's why I teach these kids.

Can we go on those high tiptoes?

And. It's amazing. It's really amazing.

-Ballet is a profession. It's a calling.

You know, Balanchine once said, famously, 'I don't want people who would like to dance.

-You have to give yourself up in order to serve the art.

Ballet is so big and it's so all-encompassing.

Even if it's drag ballet, even if it's comedy ballet, even if you're joining the Trockadero, your problems have to take a back seat to how you can serve the choreography and how you can serve the audience.

And in a funny way, this has a great way of healing people.

♪ -Towards the end of my career as a Trock, in '82, '83, we had gone that year from somewhere in Texas to -- we went from hot to cold, and two people in the company got really sick.

My roommate at the time, Sanson Candelaria, woke up one night in Chicago -- this was in winter -- dripping wet.

He said to me, 'I'm gonna die. I'm dying. I'm gonna die.'

And I said, 'You're not gonna die. Saya tidak tahu.

You have some kind of fe-- I don't know.

Nothing dawned on me what was going on.

And then we were in San Francisco, and I did see this article in the paper about this gay cancer.

And then other people in the company started to get sick.

-There was a period when four or five of our dancers were dying of AIDS.

I would be dancing with them, and months later, they were gone.

Sanson -- I had danced with Sanson as my Swan Queen for years, and all of a sudden, I didn't have Sanson anymore.

-I hired Sanson when I started the company, and he was clearly heads above any of the other dancers.

He was the first really, really good dancer that joined the Trockadero.

He was the first one in the rehearsal, the first one in the dressing room, and the last one to leave at night.

Everything he did had a level of seriousness and professionalism, you know, that the rest of us sort of lacked.

But he was very funny, too.

More than anybody else in the company, he loved to dance.

-I remember this story that Sanson had just gotten out of the hospital and he was well enough to do 'Swan Lake.'

And there's this moment in 'Swan Lake' where the Swan Queen is all the way down and then the prince picks up the Swan Queen and they're gonna do their dance.

And, um, that moment. [ Voice breaking ] . it was breathtaking.

-Sanson died midway through the worst of the AIDS crisis.

He lost so much -- lost his strength, lost his stamina.

♪ -That the company kept going is just amazing in itself, because, like every other dance company, so many people got sick.

Um. Those people that passed, especially Sanson, they are with me all the time -- all the time.

♪ -None of us thought the company would last.

The company didn't think it would last, and didn't think it would last.

You have to have faith in something.

If you don't have any faith, you don't have anything.

Where's your refuge in life?

Doesn't have to be religion.

For a lot of people, it's dancing.

A lot of companies really have kind of lost that faith in the thing itself and what it means.

[ Laughs ] But, oddly, the Trockadero has not.

What's happened over this 45 years is now, in a funny way, the Trockadero is the keeper of the flame.

♪ -Are you doing soft shoes, Josh?

If we're gonna do this, we're gonna do it.

This is about tenacity, perseverance.

That's really what the American spirit is all about.

-♪ La -Aah! That was a mistake! Itu adalah sebuah kesalahan.

-[ Russian accent ] Good evening, ladies and gentlemen.

In accordance with the greatest tradition of the Russian ballet, there will be changes in this evening's program.

I'm really excited about performing in celebration to Stonewall.

We are charged. We're ready. Ya.

We regret to announce the absence in this evening's program of Natasha Notgoodenoff.

[ Laughter ] For us performing here at Summerstage during Pride, I feel that sometimes we forget how things were before.

But we'll make the best of making this night memorable.

We wish to remind you that the use of cellular phones, the taking of photographs, and video recording are strictly prohibited.

Rattling noises and sudden bursts of light tend to remind our more fragile ballerinas of terrible Bolshevik gunfire.

[ Laughter ] -There goes Julie Andrews after too many martinis.

-Trockadero is such an institution within the gay community.

-And I feel really proud to be a part of something like that.

[ Cheers and applause in distance ] -They liked that one, didn't they?

-And to be part of the celebration, this is one of the most special moments of my dance career.

-Stonewall was a unique moment in New York City.

What made Stonewall special was that people could dance there.

Over and over again, I heard people talk about how important dancing was and why shutting down that particular bar and making it impossible for these young people to dance infuriated them.

This was the one place where they felt safe, one place where they could dance, one place where they could be close and do what everyone else did.

[ Cheers and applause ] -Thank you, Central Park. We love you.

♪ -What I love about the Trocks deciding to do 'Stars and Stripes Forever' for the 50th anniversary of Stonewall is that it's so in keeping with who they are.

And to do it in Central Park, where many of the great performances of all time have been done, and they did it in plain sight, I love that.

It's joyous fun that speaks to what it means to be an American in an all-inclusive America -- and, I like to think, a America.

♪ -'Stars and Stripes' is Balanchine's love letter to America.

He loved America, and he did a lot of ballets that had to do with the kind of 1950s patriotic feelings.

It's the America that defeated Hitler.

It's that America that he was celebrating.

It's more like a Fourth of July message.

♪ Well, the Trocks' 'Stars and Stripes' is a love letter, too.

But in a way, it's a reverse love letter, because what it means is America has taken in the Trocks as part of our culture.

[ Cheers and applause ] ♪ The Trockadero was a militant organization because we were breaking all of the statues.

We were smashing all the icons.

Now, mind you, we did it all nicely and it was all done with culture and sophistication -- sort of.


The Science of Crying

M ichael Trimble, a behavioral neurologist with the unusual distinction of being one of the world&rsquos leading experts on crying, was about to be interviewed on a BBC radio show when an assistant asked him a strange question: How come some people don&rsquot cry at all?

The staffer went on to explain that a colleague of hers insisted he never cries. She&rsquod even taken him to see Les Misérables, certain it would jerk a tear or two, but his eyes stayed dry. Trimble was stumped. He and the handful of other scientists who study human crying tend to focus their research on wet eyes, not dry ones, so before the broadcast began, he set up an email [email protected]&mdashand on the air asked listeners who never cry to contact him. Within a few hours, Trimble had received hundreds of messages.

&ldquoWe don&rsquot know anything about people who don&rsquot cry,&rdquo Trimble says now. In fact, there&rsquos also a lot scientists don&rsquot know&mdashor can&rsquot agree on&mdashabout people who do cry. Charles Darwin once declared emotional tears &ldquopurposeless,&rdquo and nearly 150 years later, emotional crying remains one of the human body&rsquos more confounding mysteries. Though some other species shed tears reflexively as a result of pain or irritation, humans are the only creatures whose tears can be triggered by their feelings. In babies, tears have the obvious and crucial role of soliciting attention and care from adults. But what about in grownups? That&rsquos less clear. It&rsquos obvious that strong emotions trigger them, but why?

There&rsquos a surprising dearth of hard facts about so fundamental a human experience. Scientific doubt that crying has any real benefit beyond the physiological&mdashtears lubricate the eyes&mdashhas persisted for centuries. Beyond that, researchers have generally focused their attention more on emotions than on physiological processes that can appear to be their by-products: &ldquoScientists are not interested in the butterflies in our stomach, but in love,&rdquo writes Ad Vingerhoets, a professor at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and the world&rsquos foremost expert on crying, in his 2013 book, Why Only Humans Weep.

But crying is more than a symptom of sadness, as Vingerhoets and others are showing. It&rsquos triggered by a range of feelings&mdashfrom empathy and surprise to anger and grief&mdashand unlike those butterflies that flap around invisibly when we&rsquore in love, tears are a signal that others can see. That insight is central to the newest thinking about the science of crying.

Darwin wasn&rsquot the only one with strong opinions about why humans cry. By some calculations, people have been speculating about where tears come from and why humans shed them since about 1,500 B.C. For centuries, people thought tears originated in the heart the Old Testament describes tears as the by-product of when the heart&rsquos material weakens and turns into water, says Vingerhoets. Later, in Hippocrates&rsquo time, it was thought that the mind was the trigger for tears. A prevailing theory in the 1600s held that emotions&mdashespecially love&mdashheated the heart, which generated water vapor in order to cool itself down. The heart vapor would then rise to the head, condense near the eyes and escape as tears.

Finally, in 1662, a Danish scientist named Niels Stensen discovered that the lacrimal gland was the proper origin point of tears. That&rsquos when scientists began to unpack what possible evolutionary benefit could be conferred by fluid that springs from the eye. Stensen&rsquos theory: Tears were simply a way to keep the eye moist.

Few scientists have devoted their studies to figuring out why humans weep, but those who do don&rsquot agree. In his book, Vingerhoets lists eight competing theories. Some are flat-out ridiculous, like the 1960s view that humans evolved from aquatic apes and tears helped us live in saltwater. Other theories persist despite lack of proof, like the idea popularized by biochemist William Frey in 1985 that crying removes toxic substances from the blood that build up during times of stress.

Evidence is mounting in support of some new, more plausible theories. One is that tears trigger social bonding and human connection. While most other animals are born fully formed, humans come into the world vulnerable and physically unequipped to deal with anything on their own. Even though we get physically and emotionally more capable as we mature, grownups never quite age out of the occasional bout of helplessness. &ldquoCrying signals to yourself and other people that there&rsquos some important problem that is at least temporarily beyond your ability to cope,&rdquo says Jonathan Rottenberg, an emotion researcher and professor of psychology at the University of South Florida. &ldquoIt very much is an outgrowth of where crying comes from originally.&rdquo

Scientists have also found some evidence that emotional tears are chemically different from the ones people shed while chopping onions&mdashwhich may help explain why crying sends such a strong emotional signal to others. In addition to the enzymes, lipids, metabolites and electrolytes that make up any tears, emotional tears contain more protein. One hypothesis is that this higher protein content makes emotional tears more viscous, so they stick to the skin more strongly and run down the face more slowly, making them more likely to be seen by others.

Tears also show others that we&rsquore vulnerable, and vulnerability is critical to human connection. &ldquoThe same neuronal areas of the brain are activated by seeing someone emotionally aroused as being emotionally aroused oneself,&rdquo says Trimble, a professor emeritus at University College London. &ldquoThere must have been some point in time, evolutionarily, when the tear became something that automatically set off empathy and compassion in another. Actually being able to cry emotionally, and being able to respond to that, is a very important part of being human.&rdquo

A less heartwarming theory focuses on crying&rsquos usefulness in manipulating others. &ldquoWe learn early on that crying has this really powerful effect on other people,&rdquo Rottenberg says. &ldquoIt can neutralize anger very powerfully,&rdquo which is part of the reason he thinks tears are so integral to fights between lovers&mdashparticularly when someone feels guilty and wants the other person&rsquos forgiveness. &ldquoAdults like to think they&rsquore beyond that, but I think a lot of the same functions carry forth,&rdquo he says.

A small study in the journal Sains that was widely cited&mdashand widely hyped by the media&mdashsuggested that tears from women contained a substance that inhibited the sexual arousal of men. &ldquoI won&rsquot pretend to be surprised that it generated all the wrong headlines,&rdquo says Noam Sobel, one of the study&rsquos authors and a professor of neurobiology at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Tears might be lowering sexual arousal&mdashbut the bigger story, he thinks, is that they might be reducing aggression, which the study didn&rsquot look at. Men&rsquos tears may well have the same effect. He and his group are currently wading through the 160-plus molecules in tears to see if there&rsquos one responsible.

What all of this means for people who don&rsquot cry is a question researchers are now turning to. If tears are so important for human bonding, are people who never cry perhaps less socially connected? That&rsquos what preliminary research is finding, according to clinical psychologist Cord Benecke, a professor at the University of Kassel in Germany. He conducted intimate, therapy-style interviews with 120 individuals and looked to see if people who didn&rsquot cry were different from those who did. He found that noncrying people had a tendency to withdraw and described their relationships as less connected. They also experienced more negative aggressive feelings, like rage, anger and disgust, than people who cried.

More research is needed to determine whether people who don&rsquot cry really are different from the rest of us, and some is soon to come: those emailers who heard Trimble on the radio that morning in 2013 are now the subjects of the first scientific study of people with such a tendency.

Virtually no evidence exists that crying comes with any positive effects on health. Yet the myth persists that it&rsquos an emotional and physical detox, &ldquolike it&rsquos some kind of workout for your body,&rdquo Rottenberg says. One analysis looked at articles about crying in the media&mdash140 years&rsquo worth&mdashand found that 94% described it as good for the mind and body and said holding back tears would result in the opposite. &ldquoIt&rsquos kind of a fable,&rdquo says Rottenberg. &ldquoThere&rsquos not really any research to support that.&rdquo

Also overblown is the idea that crying is always followed by relief. &ldquoThere&rsquos an expectation that we feel better after we cry,&rdquo says Randy Cornelius, a professor of psychology at Vassar College. &ldquoBut the work that&rsquos been done on this indicates that, if anything, we don&rsquot feel good after we cry.&rdquo When researchers show people a sad movie in a laboratory and then measure their mood immediately afterward, those who cry are in worse moods than those who don&rsquot.

But other evidence does back the notion of the so-called good cry that leads to catharsis. One of the most important factors, it seems, is giving the positive effects of crying&mdashthe release&mdashenough time to sink in. When Vingerhoets and his colleagues showed people a tearjerker and measured their mood 90 minutes later instead of right after the movie, people who had cried were in a better mood than they had been before the film. Once the benefits of crying set in, he explains, it can be an effective way to recover from a strong bout of emotion.

Modern crying research is still in its infancy, but the mysteries of tears&mdashand the recent evidence that they&rsquore far more important than scientists once believed&mdashdrive Vingerhoets and the small cadre of tear researchers to keep at it. &ldquoTears are of extreme relevance for human nature,&rdquo says Vingerhoets. &ldquoWe cry because we need other people. So Darwin,&rdquo he says with a laugh, &ldquowas totally wrong.&rdquo

This is an abridged version of an article that appears in the March 07, 2016 issue of TIME.


The Science Behind A 14-Day Quarantine After Possible COVID-19 Exposure

A sign on the M8 motorway last week in Glasgow, Scotland.

Jeff J. Mitchell/Getty Images

To stop the spread of the coronavirus, health officials have a favorite refrain: After being in a city or region where there have been a lot of COVID-19 cases, spend 14 days in quarantine even if you feel perfectly fine — don't leave your house. Coming from New York? 14-day quarantine. Arriving in Hawaii? 14-day quarantine. Been in Italy or China or Iran recently? 14-day quarantine.

"That's a long-standing public health practice, and it's called 'traveler's quarantine,' " explains Lindsay Wiley, a professor at American University's Washington College of Law. "Fourteen days is not a made-up number here — it's based on what we know so far about COVID-19, and it's possible that over time we'll see that number change as we learn more [about the virus]."

The 14-day rule is widespread because public health agencies around the world work together on these guidelines. In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sets the quarantine period, and its counterpart organizations do so abroad, all in concert with the World Health Organization.

If you're one of the many people who are being asked to quarantine for a fortnight, you might be asking: Why 14 days, exactly?

The answer has to do with how viruses invade cells and replicate.

Once a virus infects someone — a host — it takes some time for the virus to make enough copies of itself that the host begins to shed the virus, through coughs or sneezes, for instance. (That's the way the host helps the virus spread to other people — who are then new hosts.) This is the virus' incubation period. For us hosts, it's generally the time between when we're first infected and when we start shedding the virus, which may be a little before we start experiencing symptoms.

"The incubation period varies from virus to virus and sometimes from host to host," says Rachel Graham, a virologist at the University of North Carolina's Gillings School of Global Public Health.

For the virus that causes COVID-19 — its official name is SARS-CoV-2 — researchers have found that the typical incubation period is about five days. About 97% of the people who get infected and develop symptoms will do so within 11 to 12 days, and about 99% will within 14 days.

Canadian border agents are handing people entering Canada a sheet from the Public Health Agency of Canada that instructs them to self-quarantine for 14 days and monitor themselves for any symptoms that might signal COVID-19. Selena Simmons-Duffin/NPR sembunyikan teks

So that 14-day quarantine is being considered the outside "safety" margin, Graham says, to be certain you haven't developed an infection that you could spread to others.

With two similar viruses, SARS and MERS, the incubation periods are a little shorter, with most people developing symptoms within 10 days. Those viruses also had a higher proportion of people experiencing more severe symptoms, which made it easier to define the end of the "safety" window.

There's a big open question with the coronavirus that makes these quarantine recommendations trickier than usual: It's not yet clear how common it is for people who are infected but not showing symptoms — at least not yet — to shed the virus. That answer has been particularly tough to nail down in the U.S. because testing for COVID-19 is not yet widespread.

An illustration created at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conveys a likeness of the coronavirus that's behind the current pandemic. CDC sembunyikan teks

An illustration created at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conveys a likeness of the coronavirus that's behind the current pandemic.

"It's still a big black box as to how much asymptomatic spread is contributing to the increased number of cases that we're seeing," Graham says.

And even if you don't develop any coronavirus symptoms during the two-week quarantine period, you're not totally off the hook when it ends, says Saskia Popescu, an infection prevention epidemiologist at the health care system HonorHealth in Phoenix.

It'll be just as important to continue washing your hands frequently, cover your mouth when you cough, avoid touching your face and wipe down doorknobs and other surfaces frequently touched by many people — to help keep yourself and others healthy.

"If you're using hand hygiene, [if] you're still practicing social distancing and all those other infection control measures that are being encouraged right now, you're going to help break that chain of infection," she says. "Once you're past that 14 days, you still want to engage in those practices — it's not a free-for-all."

Fourteen days can feel like a long time to be stuck at home feeling fine. But if someone under quarantine starts to develop symptoms — such as coughing or fever — that quarantine period will be longer. If that happens, Graham says, you should check with your health care provider or your local health department about when it is safe to emerge from home.

"They're probably going to tell you that you're going to have to start that 14-day count all over again, because right now there's not an efficient way to tell the difference between the coronavirus and another viral infection that causes similar symptoms without a test," she says.

"Keep monitoring your symptoms — if they worsen, then you have to take additional steps," such as seeking medical attention if you develop shortness of breath. Assuming your symptoms are mild enough that you can recover at home, you'll continue to be in isolation for the duration of your illness and a few days after you feel well. Your doctor will guide you about when and how to seek a confirmatory test.

It's helpful to understand the rationale behind these quarantine recommendations, says Wiley, because they're likely to be part of the new American reality for many months to come, as virus hot spots move around the country.

"As we start to get a sense for where community transmission levels are high and where they're low — in the areas where it's low, there's going to be a desire to return to some degree of normalcy," Wiley says. Those areas will be protective of their low levels of virus and will want to keep newcomers quarantined until it's safe for them to roam.


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